Update about Andrew

Just a brief update. Andrew is now working in Melbourne Australia. He is currently the Education Manager for the English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) Department of the Lonsdale Institute. He oversees the ELICOS department for both the Melbourne and Sydney campuses. This involves new teacher development, curriculum development, student welfare, and more.

He retains his interest in psycholinguistics and teaching listening, and applying technology to assist in language learning. He is now more engaged in professional development for teachers and teacher instruction.

Flinders Street Station, Melbourne

JALT Conference Teaching Listening presentation

Teaching Listening Using Bottom-Up Approaches

Andrew Blyth    Room 901, 11 to 11.25am, Saturday 24th Nov

Thanks for your interest in this topic and for coming to my presentation. Here are some resources:

This presentation is also supported by HelloSpace.Me, websites for teachers and academics. If you like this website, build your own with content tailored to you and your classes. Contact hey@hellospace.me.


There have been few options for teachers to really teach listening. There has been no credible evidence in support of listening strategies, and extensive listening is not enough. Recent research from cognitive science and pedagogy indicates that teaching listening with bottom-up approaches is effective, and is easy to do. This workshop will introduce some simple activities you can use on Monday morning to get your students listening better using proven methodology.

What is Web 3.0? And social media ethics and privacy in education

This article was first published at HelloSpace.Me/blog.

Currently we’re in “Web 2.0”, but transitioning to 3.0. What does that mean? I’ll give you a super quick history lesson. The first version of the internet contained static (boring) pages. Basically, they were placeholders until web gurus, marketers, and admin could figure out what to do. The first websites were basically static billboards. Companies like Coca Cola needed to claim their domain, so that they could retain control of their company image. Some guy even bought madona.com, and the real Madona had to take him to court, which set a precedent on ownership rights.

When interaction capabilities were beginning to be built into web experiences with platforms like PHPBB, Friendster, MySpace, etc, this became known as “Web 2.0” as interaction became a distinct evolution from the billboard-like experiences we had before. Of course, because there’s things to do and hold our attention, new independent websites like YouTube, the early Twitter and FaceBook exploded in popularity (YouTube was eventually bought by Google).

CC0 UnSplash, https://www.pexels.com/photo/meeting-pencils-macbook-notebooks-40120/

CC0 UnSplash, https://www.pexels.com/photo/meeting-pencils-macbook-notebooks-40120/

So, that is the internet we’ve experienced up until this year. For a few years now, people like me (Andrew) has expressed serious concerns about privacy, and our rights to own our data (see bibliography at the bottom of this article). These were ignored. Basically, people ignore or remain naive to an issue until we or our friends are hurt, then we hear or tell everyone around us about it, and then change our behaviour. With revelations that the US intelligence community has been vacuuming up our data as it passes through US territory, the constant leak of passwords and private information from Yahoo, and now Facebook (via Cambridge Analytica), and the missuse and abuse of trust, we’re now on the verge of changing the internet again.

So, what will Web 3.0 look like?

We’ve already started evolving into that. You’ve seen vestiges of it already in place. The fact that you’re reading this is apart of Web 3.0 already. Let me explain.

The new internet will be about security, privacy, and human rights; both in support and opposition to it. Security, privacy, and human rights in the digital realm is the new activists battle ground. In China, we see the government demanding to snoop and spy on their citizens. Encryption and VPNs are now banned in China, except where it would interrupt international commerce and trade. In the US we see election candidates wanting to snoop and spy on citizens, and use that information to influence your thinking. In Europe and Switzerland, we see that snooping and spying on citizens are outlawed, except in cases approved by the court (with a search warrant like process) to allow for criminal investigation. The worst that can happen with your personal data is:

1. Governments will use it to falsely accuse you of crimes and punish you. We see this already happening to human rights advocates in Vietnam and China, and against minority groups in the US.

2. Abused by employees of the government to monitor people within their own families or neighborhoods. Also employers abuse their access and privilege to spy on employees, which has had serious consequences already.

3. Accessed by criminals to steal your personal data. Identity theft is a very common digital crime. Criminals can impersonate you, and take out credit cards and loans in your name. They then wrack up a debit of which you are responsible for, and it destroys the credit rating of Americans, which is particularly harmful to them. This type of crime is difficult for the police to investigate as it is often committed internationally, and because your own personal computer security is so bad, the police can’t even determine how the criminals got your data, so beginning an investigation is difficult.

Group discussion. CC0 Startup Stock Photos, https://www.pexels.com/photo/people-office-team-collaboration-7075/

Group discussion. CC0 Startup Stock Photos, https://www.pexels.com/photo/people-office-team-collaboration-7075/

What you can do?

Here are the tools and features of Web 3.0:

SSL certificates. Basic SSL certificates are available to all our customers for free. These are the green padlocks you see in the address bar of your browser. The web address should start with “https” not “http”; the ‘s’ indicates a secure and encrypted connection. That means, if you’re using public wifi, criminals cannot see your login username or password, but they can if you didn’t use an SSL connection.

FireFox or Brave. These are web browsers that are so much more secure than Microsoft Explorer or Edge. Set these to “Never remember browsing history”, or “Clear browsing data after closing”, and never store passwords.

For secure communication, use Whatsapp, the best is Telegram.

For secure email use Gmail or protonmail.com (Yahoo often gets hacked, so never use it). Just know that Gmail is owned by Google, and so any data you have there, is accessible by Google (and their national government).

Use a VPN like PureVPN or similar. A VPN hides your geographical location, and encrypts your data, so no-one can snoop on your communications. Never use a “free” VPN. They make money from selling your data. Always pay for a VPN, because those companies make money from you, not from selling your data.

For cloud and online file storage, don’t use DropBox, it is not secure. Use Tresorit. Tresorit has never been hacked, and is the most secure system we know. Tresorit also synchronises your files between computers, office network, or just your only computer and cloud. If your house is ever burgled or burnt down, you haven’t lost your important files.

Don’t use Google for searches. Google also vacuums up your data, information, interests, search history, everything. They can match it to you via your ip address whether your signed in or not. Use Duckduckgo.com instead. They do not store your data, and they redirect your searches to a variety of search engines, and so you get a wider variety of responses anyway, and your searches are anonymised. That means, that health problem you think you have, you won’t see ads for treatments appearing on every website you visit. Fun Freaky fact: Amazon knows if a woman is pregnant before she does, just by analysing her searches, and comparing it to historical data of women who have bought baby items.

For your own website, of course use us, HelloSpace.Me. Our servers are expertly maintained, and are physically located in Switzerland. That means your data is protected under Swiss Privacy laws, and under Swiss Data Protection laws. Which means, only a judge in a criminal investigation can allow access to our servers, but only to a specific persons account. So far, we’ve never received such a request; if we do, we will seek legal advice before permitting investigators access. Conversely, US intelligence already has unfettered access to US webhosting companies anyway, which makes us the best option. Finally, we keep your data to ourselves, and we only collect the vital data we need so that you can maintain the essential functions of your account with us. We do not over-collect (get data we don’t need), and we do not share or sell it to anyone. There are some services where this is necessary, such as your domain registration, and any additional features you purchase for your website that are provided by third-party sellers.

Never over-share your information. Avoid publicising your identifying data like your date of birth, place of birth, mother’s maiden name, your preferred bank, and such. Don’t engage in/with political messages whilst using your real name. Use a pseudonym (which were commonly used in Web 1.0 and early 2.0) with a VPN when you’re engaging in political or social activism.

For more information, see Andrew’s publications:

5 Things about stress-free classroom management

I was asked by one of my student-teachers a few years ago about classroom management. Actually, I don’t remember her exact wording, but it might have been something like, “how do you discipline the naughty students?”, or “how do you control the bad kids?” or something like that. The question baffled me at first, for two reasons. 1. I don’t have ‘naughty or bad students’. 2. I don’t need to ‘discipline’ students, so I didn’t know how to do these things, nor how to answer that question. Of course, I then wondered why I couldn’t answer the question, and why I don’t have classroom problems. I just don’t have those issues.  It took me a few minutes to figure out what the real question is; a few weeks to figure out a rough answer; and a few months to understand the details. The answer is a lot more detailed than what a blog post can offer, but really, it’s a mindset on the teacher’s side, a philosophy, so below is probably customisable, adaptable, and interpretable for you personally. Use what suits you best, and put on hold the other things that doesn’t sit well for you, at least for now. However, read this, and incrementally start to employ these winning strategies for a stress free relationship with your classes.

1. Realise we are all merely humans.

What this really means is that your class, your lessons, your subject are not the most important things in life. The basic needs of any human is food, water, shelter, human contact, social needs. Everything else is just artificial 21st century add-ons that primitive humans survived without. There are people starving, struggling to survive under slavery, people living in horrid, unimaginable conditions all over the world right now. The people you have in front of you are usually fortunate, but you don’t know what is really happening in their own lives. Instead being out in the world enjoying life, they’ve put themselves in a position in front of you. They’ve given their minds and bodies to you, and they trust that you’re not going to waste their time, or make their lives a misery.

You, the teacher, might have been lucky to grow up in a privileged middle-class upbringing, in a relatively safe, stable family and country. Not everyone has enjoyed such a nice start on life. Some of our students might need to do things that an ordinary child should never have to do (like help care for a terminally ill and dying close relative, or do all the domestic chores), or see things that no child should see (think of the worst and most tragic events or scenarios). Consequently, I like to make my classroom as much of an escape and refuge as possible.

Art museum in Europe. CC Adrianna Calvo 2014, https://www.pexels.com/photo/black-and-white-art-museum-europe-21264/

Art museum in Europe. CC Adrianna Calvo 2014, https://www.pexels.com/photo/black-and-white-art-museum-europe-21264/

In philosophy, they talk of what the purpose of art is. Really, why do we spent sometimes hundreds of hours trying to make a vase and decorate it; a thing that its primary purpose is to transport and store liquids. Instead of using it for its primary purpose, we  just put it on display, just to look at; just to enjoy its prettiness. Why? Just so we can escape the horrors of everyday living. Life is hard and terrible. I don’t want to make life even more hard and terrible for my students. Consequently, I try to make the classroom experience fulfilling, joyful, light, deep, meaningful, engaging, whatever positive adjective that adds value to your students. Make your class a distraction from reality, let them forget for a while the sheer horror of living daily life.

A book that was really important for me was Tuesdays with Morrie, by Mitch Albom. That turned my world upside down and straightened me out. Still today, I thank the two adult students I had who really pushed this book onto me. Also, listen to The Philosophy Bites and the Philosopher’s Zone podcasts. The range of topics there are deeply fulfilling for your own psyche and outlook on life.

2. Don’t judge; no grudges. Ever!

When I get a new class, ALL students enter the room with no reputation, no historical baggage, and all with a fresh start. They look at you with wide eyes, and they are hoping that this year will be a good year, finally, hopefully. I don’t want to ruin that. All students have the chance to impress me, or sabotage their own efforts. Those who seem “lively” I give them friendly reminders that they need to listen, or get back to work.

A teacher and student laughing. Creative Commons licensed image from http://www.flickr.com/photos/departmentofed/9609016298/sizes/l/

A teacher and student laughing. Creative Commons licensed image from http://www.flickr.com/photos/departmentofed/9609016298/sizes/l/

For any students who cause problems for me, I politely, and always with the same manner of respect I would display to my neighbour, a stranger on the subway, my boss, that kind of respect, I ask them to stop it, and help their partner do the task at hand. Reminding them of their social responsibilities is powerful. Some students have attention deficit disorder, some don’t know the correct manner of behaving in the situation now, some have Asperger’s, some simply have a hearing deficit and got bored, there are a myriad of reasons why they cannot behave in the cookie-cutter manner some teachers might expect or hope for. Ninety-nine percent of the time it’s not their fault they have turned out the way they are. So if during a teacher-centered moment they cause an interruption quickly finish your spiel, then get the class engaged on some autonomous or pair-work activity. Now it’s your chance to engage with that ‘disruptive’ student. This part is really, really, super important: In your nicest, most sincere, unjudgemental, manner you can, simply ask the student who disrupted, “Are you ok?”, “Do you understand what to do?” “Can I help you in any way?”

Why is that super important? It shows many things including, 1. You’re not like the old grammar-school teachers who will discipline him / her. 2. You’re open to understanding them. 3. You’re giving them an opportunity to get help, and opportunity to succeed in your class. 4. They haven’t sabotaged their own potential in your class. 5. You don’t hold grudges, and this behaviour today got your attention, but in a good way. 6. They know you’re willing to help. 7. You respect all people. Everyone wants both dignity and respect; these are fundamental to our social existence, and you have no intention to battle them, to work with them instead. Really, this makes a huge difference.

3. Offer help

I try to keep my teacher-centered moments as brief as possible, and give students their time to engage with the content autonomously. This gives them the chance to explore things at their own speed, to the depth they need, and some self control. This time is important for me to walk around and see what’s up with different students. I can offer them help if need be, I can see who’s struggling, and gives me talk time with them, too. The ‘problem students’, I try to make my best buddies. I ask them, “how are you doing?”, “Do you need help?”, “Do you understand what to do?”, “Are you ok today? You seem a little sleepy / distracted.” among others. Sometimes they will ask for help, and this is important, so that you can start to learn what problems they face. May be you explain things too quick, or you leave out some essential details that only students who can see the big picture get, or they just need to hear it once more. Take the time to patiently help the student will make you one of their favourite teachers. Even if they don’t ask for help, just offering it makes you a star.

Photo CC from ZeLIG School, at https://flic.kr/p/7UUFEK

Photo CC from ZeLIG School, at https://flic.kr/p/7UUFEK

4. Use proximity

Patrol around the room, and stand near potential trouble spots. During student work time I always walk around to see who’s getting it right, who needs help, or a nudge in the right direction. Also, for students who seem distracted, I stop and stand near them. I don’t necessarily look at them, but they know I’m right there, and now’s not the time to mess around, because I’m right there. I usually don’t need to say anything, and so this avoids confrontations. Even during my brief teacher-centered moments, I might move and stand right by a potential offender, and so noting their behaviour, and continue my explanation. The class will notice their behaviour, and so everyone knows that you know, just you choose to get on with the task. So the potential problem student usually shuts down that behaviour themselves.

5. Know their names

Knowing the name of the most helpful and ‘lively’ students will make everyone’s lives easier. Sometimes all you have to do is say their names in a manner that is respectful, but stern (somehow it always sounds comical to my class). During explanations I will say, “Thank you, now this part is important, you need this”, then explain and demonstrate.

Coffee Talk. CC Anna Levinzon 2008, https://flic.kr/p/4wAz5r

Coffee Talk. CC Anna Levinzon 2008, https://flic.kr/p/4wAz5r

Bonus. Build your own reputation

Students will talk, and your former students will tell the newer ones about you. It will take a few years to cultivate a reputation so students can know what to expect from you. They will say things like, “Andrew’s cool, we had a Secret Santa party with a game of charades”, or “He failed a girl in his Oral Communication class, but she didn’t really try anyway”, or “He once gave us two weeks to design our own topic, learn about it, and then present it. He did nothing but stand there watching us, but he said that he really liked the work we did”. These stories included fun things, warnings, and cool personal opportunities. There will be more stories about me out there in the student population, and I hope at least 90% of them are good or work in my favour.

How to teach pronunciation: 5 steps

I have been teaching pronunciation to students for about 17 years or more. I’ve learnt what works and what doesn’t, especially for East Asian students, and Japanese in particular. Here are five easy steps to teach pronunciation.

Follow a routine

I cannot emphasize this enough. If you’re going to teach English, in English, you must follow a routine that your students can quickly pick up and understand easily. The routine could be a standardised lesson plan, of your own design; but it should be a routine for teaching pronunciation, another routine for teaching vocabulary, and another for teaching grammar, and so on. This way, students can understand what is happening now, what is happening next, and they can see how each step of the lesson is integrated, because they’ve become accustomed to your routines. This makes it easier for students to focus, follow, and participate positively.

The 5 Steps

Your routine for a pronunciation segment of your class would be:

  1. Introduce
  2. Demonstrate
  3. Main activity
  4. Wrap up
  5. Segue to the next activity

Step 1: Introduce

Socrates said that every good story has a beginning, middle, and an end. That is, all successful narratives follow this, and it is a structure that humans can easily understand. A simple introduction could be to list some key words on the board (pictured), and elicit some features about them. The key words should be the first few moves of the main activity you will do.

  1. Do a listen and repeat drill of the words, and always, always give students time to…
  2. Rehearse the words with their partner.

Teaching two-syllable pronunciation. The blue is the list of examples, the black is the information elicited from students, and green is the explanation of the parts of the input students get.

Teaching two-syllable pronunciation. The blue is the list of examples, the black is the information elicited from students, and green is the explanation of the parts of the input students get.

Features of the input phase, as can be seen in the image, there are:

  • The first few moves included
  • Information about the pronunciation is elicited from students
  • Extra information so that students can work autonomously (with their smartphones) is included.
  • Examples and anti-examples are included. Anti-examples show what an answer would be unacceptable in the activity.

Step 2: Demonstrate

This is especially important for language learners. All students understand things better when they can see it being done; also they can understand your verbal instructions better. Simply walk through the first three moves of the activity eliciting from the students each move/step (see picture below). If it’s a pair work activity, choose a capable student to partner with you. My preferred option is to elicit the first, second, and third moves from the class, just to get them started on an activity.

Always, always, after giving a set of instructions, always, always say:

  1. “Check with your partner, what did I say?” (give half a minute for them to talk & confirm things with each other)
  2. “Do you understand?”

Example of a pronunciation activity that students would work together on.

Example of a pronunciation activity that students would work together on.

Step 3: Main activity

After eliciting the first few moves, I say, “Now continue with your partner”, and most students usually know what to do with no problems.

I prefer to use paper-based pair work activities. This way, they can see their progress, and you can see where they are going wrong. Also, working with a partner helps students have more confidence in their answers, and the social situation lightens the classroom anyway. Walk around and check to see how they are doing.

Most pronunciation activities can be repeated or reviewed in the next lesson. Simply by having students remind each other what the main point is, and “test each other”. For instance, demonstrate with a dichotomous choice question, giving yes-no, same-different, i-i:, æ-ə type of responses. For instance, “Does it have two syllables that are big-small? ‘really’ – yes, ‘zero’ – yes, ‘again’ –  no; great, now ‘test’ your partner”. This would be your demonstration, and so students can now understand what to do, and can review with each other.

Step 4: Wrap up

Simply follow these steps:

  1. elicit the answers from students / or “test” them if it’s a review
  2. Have them listen and repeat your pronunciation
  3. Give them a minute to review the pronunciation in pairs

Step 5: Segue

Some how make a link between this activity and the next. Or else say, “Next, as usual, is grammar…”. Having a segue creates a cognitive link, and a flow in the lesson. Without segues, lessons seem stop-start, or fragmented. Create some flow or continuity, so things seem smooth.

Key points

At the appropriate times, always ask these questions:

  • Do you understand?
  • Check with your partner, “what did I say?” / Summarise what I said with your partner
  • Practice together
  • Any questions?

The example above came from my own book, however, the procedure still holds well if you use a great book called Pronunciation Games by Mark Hancock.

Does anyone know how to do extensive listening?

Recently, my colleague asked me for my collated list of Extensive Listening (EL) links, which prompted a short discussion on EL, and how to do it. This quickly highlighted the fact that we had two different ways to think about how to do EL. Unlike Extensive Reading (ER) we are all on the same page (pun intended), but the opposite is true for EL.

The problem with EL is that nobody ever figured out an elegant way to do it. I’ve written about EL before, after someone asked me how to do it (Blyth, 2015), which followed on from my ELT Journal article (Blyth, 2012), but I could only give generic advice. The big problem that listening teachers have, ever since the audio-lingual era, is that we’ve been too busy to do anything but borrow ideas from reading pedagogy (Field, 2008). EL is probably no different. We just uncritically adopted ER principles.

With ER, I provide my students with the following information, which is based on Day & Bamford (2002):

Rules: Extensive reading must be 1. Fun or interesting; 2. Easy; 3. You choose your own book, magazine, blog, anything; 4. Read lots; 5. Talk about it. Research suggests that you should know about 98% of words to have effective comprehension of the text. Choosing: for every 100 words, you should know 98 so it’s ok if you don’t know 2 words, but if more than three or four unknown words you should choose a different book…

So which of the above criteria can be applied to EL?

  1. Fun or interesting
  2. Easy
  3. Choose your own
  4. Listen lots
  5. Talk about it

But not “6. How to choose an EL text your level”. Listening texts are also invisible. With an ER book, you can look at it briefly and decide if the book is worth further investigation or not. Vision provides information up to 1000 times faster than any other sense. In contrast, students cannot know if the EL text is at, above, or below their level until they had already committed to putting on the headphones, pushing the play button, and waited to get a handle on the contents. With a book students can quickly see the level information, the number of headwords, the word count, size of font, number of lines per page, the thickness of the book, the type of pictures, and the usage of images too, among many other cues. In contrast, a listening text is a mystery bag, or like a box of chocolates, “you never know what you’re going to get”, until you start listening. This mystery element is the part that has always troubled me, and perhaps my students.

So far, there are a number of assumptions to get out of the way before we can get to the final question, “Is there a better way to do EL?”.

  1. Is extensive listening even needed?
  2. Is it effective?
  3. What is the current system of EL?
  4. Is the current system working?
  5. Is there a better way to do it?

The above questions deserve far more attention than what I can afford here, but brief answers are attempted just the same. Firstly, EL is indeed needed. For instance, Field (2008) argued that students on study abroad and similar programmes often struggle. They might be tested on their grammar, and placed into a class level based on their test-taking competency and grammar knowledge, but not their listening skills. Consequently, these students, especially those from the Far East, tend to do badly in class because they cannot access their grammar teacher’s verbal instruction, and so they blame themselves rather than the level placement apparatus. Another way to answer the first question is from a Vygotskian perspective: practice makes perfect. Research in brain science, suggests the more a certain set of neural pathways are used, the more connections are made, which results information being able to flow more efficiently  (Burton, 2013). That is, the more practice students get in listening, the better they will become.

Secondly, is EL effective? Masters and PhD students of Renandya & Farrell (2011) clearly demonstrate this. Students who did extensive listening outperformed students who received only listening strategy instruction. I argued in support of this point that strategy instruction is merely teaching students to compensate for a lack of skill, rather than teaching the skill to plug the gap (Blyth, 2012). Chang and Millett (2014) provided additional evidence that practising EL results in improved listening performance than no EL practice (or at least ER alone).

Thirdly, what is the current system of EL? On this point, I cannot give a clear answer, to which Chang & Millett say, “The practice of EL in L2 teaching is a relatively novel idea and its theoretical framework is undeveloped, so not many language teachers have the knowledge to carry it out” (2016, p351). Everyone seems to have their own idea on what and how to define EL, and how to implement it. So, to define what “4. Listen lots” means, as in, how much is “a lot”, cannot be done. What texts can be used? For Chang and Millett (2016) EL is listening to graded reader audio CDs. For Rob Warring (What is EL?), it is listening to a variety of (ungraded) web based texts like those listed on my Listening page.

Fourthly, despite the lack of clarity for the third question, EL is still more effective than teaching listening strategies. It still seems that any kind of practice is better than no practice.

Fifth and finally, is there a better way to do EL? I would like to begin discussion on this point. To me, the mystery bag element has to be dealt with. To begin with, how can we define the “mystery bag”? Firstly, grading; how can a student know if a particular or group of similar listening texts are level appropriate for him or herself. Secondly, what does level appropriate mean? What are the key features that make a listening text appropriate, whilst others inappropriate? Secondly, how much listening is needed on a weekly basis; assuming that a week is an appropriate increment of time to manage listening practice. On this point, my boss had his idea of the minimum time for students to listen, whilst I had mine. Mine demanded that students do at least thirty minutes a week, but they could choose a five minute text, and listen to it six times; or a fifteen minute text, and listen to it twice; or two or three different texts, but still total listening experience must be at least thirty minutes. Obviously, the number of times of practice matters, as argued earlier. However, what is the optimal length and number of times to listen?

Establishing standardised metadata

Publishers of graded readers have, in their various ways, admitted that certain metadata are needed. As mentioned earlier, information about the number of headwords, word count, CEF level, genre, and more all help the student decide if the book might be level appropriate for them. At the moment, most EL texts lack such information, except where it might be listed as “easy”, “medium”, or “difficult”, based on the curator’s judgement. Consequently, in the interests of making things easy for students, I would propose a similar system. I would hope that these criteria I’m suggesting not be the new standard, but be discussed, tested, and modified based on an informed position. Then, after rigorous testing, will the most appropriate ones be used. The metadata to consider are:

  1. CEF level
  2. Genre & topic
  3. Nature of text: authentic, genuine, or contrived.
  4. Length of text
  5. Words per minute
  6. Number of speakers
  7. Number of words outside of the 2,000 most common word range
  8. Number of academic and technical words from the AWL
  9. Number of idioms used
  10. Script availability: Yes / No
  11. What native-like phonological features are present?


It is hoped that future research on EL can begin to address a number of key issues. Firstly, what is an optimum length of listening time per week, and optimum number of times to listen to each text. Secondly, what is the best practice for doing EL, specially for an education environment where accountability (and grades) are concerned? Thirdly, what metadata are most useful for students to help them decide if a text is appropriate for their current listening level. Which also implies another question, what is a “listening level”?


Blyth, A. (2012) Extensive listening vs. listening strategies: Response to Seigel. ELT Journal, 66 (2), pp. 236-239.

Burton, R. (2013) A Skeptics Guide to the Mind. St Martin’s Press.

Chang, A. and Millett, S. (2014) The effect of extensive listening on developing L2 listening fluency+ some hard evidence. ELT Journal, 68 (1), pp 31-40.

Chang, A., and Millett, S. (2016) Developing L2 listening fluency through extended listening-focused activities in an extensive listening programme. RELC Journal, 47 (3), pp. 349-362.

Day, R., and Bamford, J. (2002) Top Ten Principles for Teaching Extensive Reading. Reading in a Foreign Language. 14 (2), pp. 136-141.

Field, J. (2008) Listening in the Language Classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Renandya, W., and Farrell, T. (2011). ‘Teacher, the tape is too fast!’ Extensive listening in ELT. ELT Journal, 65(1), 52-59.

Introduction to Qualitative Data Analysis

For Nagoya based teachers, researchers, and JALT members, please tell us when the best time for you to attend Nagoya JALT meetings at this survey: https://goo.gl/forms/3ThnWjA8VkXQNIFm2.

This abstract was originally posted at the Nagoya JALT website. This page contains the workshop blurb and support materials. Thanks to all those who came, and QSR International Japan for sponsoring the main workshop by Prof. Yuzo Kimura.

How to do simple qualitative data analysis for small research projects on paper

  • Andrew Blyth
  • B.Sc, CELTA, MA.ELT, PhD (Ed; candidate)
  • University of Canberra, and Nanzan University

This is a simple introduction to qualitative data analysis for professional development for novice researchers, and for those wanting a better understanding of the research process. This workshop teaches and practices basic concepts of data analysis, coding (categorising), and basic concepts of theory making. The workshop is ideal for very small projects. Also, acquiring the fundamentals for larger projects including interview based research, classroom observations, discourse analysis, ethnography, and more. Furthermore, it provides the basic principles for understanding the next workshop which focuses on using Nvivo for qualitative research. Participants are not required to bring any particular materials or equipment for this workshop.

Support materials


  • Creswell, J (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. California, USA: Sage Publications.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2007) Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (Oxford Applied Linguistics). Oxford University Press.
  • Henrich, N. & Holmes, B. (2013). Web news readers’ comments: Towards developing a methodology for using on-line comments in social inquiry. Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 5(1).
  • Miles, M., and Huberman, A. (1994) An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, USA: Sage Publications.
  • ›Mitchell, C. (2011) Doing Visual Researching. Sage Publications.

Introduction to qualitative research analysis for teachers 13th May

This weekend I’ll be doing a presentation / workshop for beginning researchers on qualitative research analysis. The aim is to provide a very simple, interesting introduction on what and how qualitative research analysis is done. Basic details are below, and full details are on the Nagoya JALT website. This event is sponsored by Nagoya JALT and QSR International.

Professional development: Qualitative research, data analysis methodology, and introduction to QSR Nvivo
At Nanzan University, R building, room: R52.
Map: https://goo.gl/maps/4wHsuUg86dK2
***Car parking is available in the new west carpark, close to R building.***


  • 2:00 PM – Room opens, and Nvivo computer help available.
  • 2:30-3:30 – How to do simple qualitative data analysis for small projects on paper; Andrew Blyth, Nanzan University and University of Canberra.
  • 3:30-4:00 – Break + Nvivo computer help available.
  • 4:00-6:00 – Exploring qualitative data with NVivo: Creating, importing, coding and querying, Yuzo Kimura, University of Toyama.
  • 6:00-6:30 – Informal discussions and clean up.

The aim of these two workshops is for novice researchers to further develop and enhance their skills. There are two parts; first is a review of basic skills and an introduction to qualitative data analysis methodology; and the second introduces industry standard software commonly used in research projects.

People meeting, by Eric Bailey 2014, CC https://www.pexels.com/photo/people-meeting-workspace-team-7097/

People meeting, by Eric Bailey 2014, CC https://www.pexels.com/photo/people-meeting-workspace-team-7097/

Participants are not required to bring a laptop nor do they need to have Nvivo software, but can watch the demonstration. If they wish, participants can install QSR Nvivo on their laptops for the second workshop; however, it must be installed before attending, and the 14 day trial license newly activated. Detailed instructions are provided below. Any issues or problems with Nvivo installation should be resolved before the workshops, as the presenter cannot assist during his presentation time.

Finally, this is the first co-hosted workshop between Nagoya JALT and LEARN. A special thanks to Robert Croker of LEARN for the room booking, and for obtaining guest wifi access for this special event. Nagoya JALT looks forward to meeting and working with LEARN members at this and future events. Prof. Kimura’s workshop is co-sponsored with QSR International.

First Day activity with Kit Kats

For the first day of classes in April (the Japanese academic year starts then), teachers need a nice idea to relax the students, break the ice, and help everyone get to know each other. From talking with a colleague about how Kit Kat has taken to community service; giving people inspirational messages; how you can write your own or put your name on them; a new teaching idea evolved. If you have a stationary/research budget, you can do this.

First day activity using Kit Kats.

First day activity using Kit Kats.

  1. Before class get bags of Kit Kats
  2. Write the names of each student in your class on each Kit Kat wrapper as shown.
  3. First, practice a typical small talk or get to know you activity.
  4. Tell your class you’ll hand out Kit Kats, but do not eat them, do not open them, do not give them to anyone else. Just wait.
  5. Then in class, randomly distribute the Kit Kats so there’s one per student, but not their own.
  6. Demonstrate how to find the owner, what to say, and how to transition to small talk, and a short small talk demo.
  7. Then say, find the owner of the Kit Kat, and say “Here’s a little present for you”, and then they are to get to know each other a little. Then change, so that they have another chance to receive their own Kit Kat. Otherwise, find a new partner and get to know them, too.